Global capital flows

After the globalization became a matter of fact, huge sums of money started crossing the borders. Companies around the world became open to investors who saw bright opportunities in shifting their funds abroad. Before the global financial crisis began, the income on international investment generated three times as much money as it does today. But now, a long-term direct investment is the only thing left from former extensive capital flows. Shaken by the crisis, countries push protectionist policies to keep their funds intact. Economic experts claim that the excessive capital flows ignited the financial crisis in 2008, and they continue to threaten an integrity of the recovering economies.

Economists at the IMF claim there is the 65% fall in cross-border capital flows between 2007 and 2017. Yet before the crisis, financial deregulation brought high liquidity to advanced economies. Most of the investors’ money landed in the US property sector and raised the economic bubble. Despite the overwhelming financial flow, we cannot consider the figures of 2007 as a standard of the healthy economy. As European banks stopped their cross-border financing, the flow of capital collapsed. The IMF experts believe that the return to the cross-border financial flow of the mid-2000s would benefit Western economies.

Countries that currently introduce the protectionist policies to their economy seem to have a point. When it comes to financing, we need a safer form of globalization. Foreign direct investment is the major form of shifting the capital abroad today. It is a productive long-term financial commitment between foreign companies. At the same time, economies with a large surplus go away from cross-border bank lending.

Retirement benefits

The retirement plan allows all American workers who pay Social Security taxes to receive some benefits when they retire. During their active age, workers earn credits that would later qualify them for receiving Social Security benefits. As the worker is willing to retire, the Social Security Administration will count the sum of their benefits. It directly depends on the worker’s past income. Those who retire at the lowest possible retirement age (62) may receive lower benefits than those who do not rush to retire. The full retirement age in the US is settled between 66 and 67 years and it depends on the person’s year of birth. Retiring at this age, people do not have their benefits cuts.

Some people may retire earlier than the minimum retirement age due to their health status. They shall apply for Social Security disability benefits that equal a full, unreduced retirement benefit. Often people choose to keep working after they reach the full retirement age. Delayed retirement gives extra credits to the person’s Social Security record so that the person receivers higher benefits when they retire.

Many people in the US and beyond save for retirement making investments. They make a good bonus for Social Security retirement benefits so that investors can allow themselves to retire earlier. Experienced investors may construct a total return portfolio of stock and bond index funds. They may also join a retirement income fund or buy bonds. Rental property can be a good source of income for those ready to invest in their own real estate. A reserve account can help all retirees protect the money they already have. Safe investment can bring little income; instead, people have some guaranteed income by the moment they retire.

Financial market diversity

Institutional financial market diversity implies that a range of banking institutions act on the territory of a certain country. Diversity is achieved through the different size, origin, and clients of these banks. Capital markets can also be a source of financing and contribute to the diversity. Financial market diversity provides more room for deposits, lower liquidity constraints, and stronger economic resilience in times of crisis.

The positive effect of diversified financial markets occurs due to a large number of small banks. While large banks prefer to work with secure clients, small banks lower credit constraints for small borrowers. Publicly subsidized banks are another category of institutions that boost saving among the low-income population. They also work with people who would otherwise be excluded from banking services.

A diversified financial market obviously shelters foreign banks. These are large and experienced institutions that lower liquidity constraints through competition with the domestic banks. Relying on foreign capital, they offer large loans to profitable firms and stimulate the nearby domestic banks to be more flexible. External capital also helps to cushion capital constraints during the crisis.

Nevertheless, diversified markets can experience troubles that less diverse markets do not have. If domestic banks do not keep pace with their foreign competitors, the economy may face more liquidity constraints and more boom-and-bust cycles. A huge number of small banks can cause economic volatility that is not common for a system with a few large banks. Trying to diversify their financial markets, governments may create risky projects unable to return public funding. Therefore, the success of financially diversified market lies in the initial strength of the economy.

Shadow banking

Shadow banks are financial institutions that perform core banking functions except they do not accept traditional bank deposits. They take money from the savers and lend it to the borrowers, transform short-term funds in long-term assets, and transfer credit risks. The distinct feature of the shadow banks is that they are not subject to traditional banking regulations. They act like banks but are not supervised like banks, which means they cannot borrow funds from the Federal Reserve in case of emergency. They do not have deposits covered by insurance, which makes them risky financial institutions.

For a while, investors can understand what is going on in shadow banks so that their existence does not undermine the financial system. But it is particularly difficult to estimate the financial capacity of shadow banks because they do not report to any governmental regulators. During the recent global financial crisis, shadow banks had to sell their assets to repay investors who decided to withdraw their money at once. Thus, other financial institutions also had to lower the price on their assets respectively. Many shadow banks were controlled by real commercial banks, therefore many financial institutions became impaired in crisis.

The major problem about shadow banks is the uncontrollable number of these institutions. The system is the largest in the US, though nonbank financial entities function in European countries as well. As traditional banks are often related to shadow banks, the latter can undermine the entire economies.

Organisational change and its impact on productivity in big firms

Organizational change may be unavoidable for several reasons. Small and large businesses must adapt to the changing environment to keep pace with the competition. Sometimes they merge or change their management strategies. Old practices are not always as good, and corporate change makes a lot of sense. Responding to consumer demand, adopting new technologies, and taking into account new economic conditions, businesses secure their high performance. But the change is a stressful situation and it often costs companies low productivity at the implementation stage.

Big and small organizations are susceptible to change, but the latter are more flexible transforming their business strategies and modifying the organization type. Big companies that deployed the same strategies for years are stiffer when it comes to a merge with another business or a dramatic change of management. A change can evoke mistrust and even loss of loyalty from the staff. Most often, organizational change costs the company a period of lost productivity during which the staff tries to conform with the new management or technical demands.

After the period of transmission has passed, the organization change starts bringing the first positive results at last. The new system better empowers employees, enhances the production, boosts customer service. What once looked weird, can introduce new bright opportunities to the business and benefit company’s staff more than people initially expect. All in all, the change must be fully implemented to reveal all its advantages.

Write speech

Speech writing usually means that you will need to present all that in public. For this reason, the importance of writing a clear and logical piece of writing is huge. You are not merely supposed to mention your ideas or points of view. You need to prove them by providing examples.

If you realize that you need assistance with the task to write speech, do not hesitate to address your request to our academic writing agency. We know how to help you accomplish this task quickly.

Another aspect to take into consideration is that by ordering a sample paper from us you will manage to take some time off. Therefore, start figuring out which activity you want to spend it on as there are lots of great alternatives on hand.

While you are doing something more enjoyable than dealing with paper writing, one of our writers is going to concentrate on sample writing. What it presupposes is that you will be provided with your piece of writing without any delays. What is more, we always strive to keep all those promises we give to out customers. Let us deliver a well-written speech to you. You will see why so many students choose our academic writing agency to assist them with their tasks. We guarantee you that the task will be completed as required. Well, you will make sure yourself as soon as the order is delivered to you. We know how to help you accomplish the assignment properly and on time. In addition, we have a lot of experience in the area which proves that you have chosen the right agency to assist you with your academic writing task.

Thesis statement


The most important thing to remember when writing a thesis statement is that you are supposed to focus on one big issue. Try not to mention any details at this stage as it will be more difficult to grasp the whole idea. Apart from that, it is also quite significant to try and keep it short. You need to dwell upon the issue you are going to cover in your thesis in a few words.

Obviously, it has never been easy to complete such assignment, especially when you do not have a lot of time to deal with it. The good news is that the team of our highly qualified writers can help you a lot with the accomplishment of this assignment. What we can do is provide you with a well-written sample thesis statement. As a result, you can use it in the process of working on your task which will definitely help you complete it faster.

As soon as you fill out the order form and pay for the sample, you will be able to focus on any activity you choose and go have some fun while one of our writers is working. That is the best way to finally make use of the opportunity, as well as to get together with your friends and to do something enjoyable. Cannot figure out what to do? Well, the only thing you are supposed to do is to search the internet. Lots of great ideas are available online. Pick something you like and go have some fun. You definitely need that in order to recharge. Meanwhile, we will get down to sample thesis statement writing.

Sex education essay sample


It is time to start talking seriously about sex education. This issue has been avoided for so many years. Yet, it is something our children should be taught about. In such a way, they will know more, be aware of consequences as well as be more careful.

Sex education will help students dispel various myths about sex, learn more about relationships and sexual identity as well as teach how to be careful and responsible for those choices that the person has made. A lot of teens these days have absolutely no idea about contraception and birth control. One cannot tell someone what to do. Yet, one can teach someone more about sexual relationships as well as about the importance of making reasonable decisions.

Apart from that, sexual education helps to protect children and teens against sexual abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies and exploitation. What is more, all students have the right to get access to information regarding sexual education. These are those kinds of matters that affect them directly which is the reason why they should know more about it. If you want to familiarize yourself with more information regarding sex education in schools, feel free to visit …

Research paper custom


Do not have much time to deal with your assignment? It is not a problem as you can easily entrust the accomplishment of your task to us and have less difficulties to deal with. If that is exactly what you need right now, let us assist with your academic writing task. We have everything you require in terms of academic writing. Address your request to us and you will be convinced.

There is no need to search for any information on research paper custom when you have our service on hand. The only thing you need to do is to follow a few simple instructions. They are to fill out the order form and to proceed with the payment. Obviously, you have already realized that the order process is not going to take you long. Thus, you will be able to focus on some other activity as soon as you are through with that procedure.

What you choose to spend your leisure time on is completely your decision. Get together with your friends or stay at home and do absolutely nothing. There is a range of great options you can select from. Do what you love and use this chance to clear your mind. Besides, you require a break as you have been working really hard for the whole academic year. Fortunately, you know exactly what to do in a situation like that. Contact our custom paper writing agency and place your order. It will take only a few minutes. The rest is our responsibility. You have nothing to worry about in this respect as we have the whole team of expert writers ready to get down to task accomplishment immediately.

Process design matrix paper


Need to come up with a process design matrix paper? Well, it is not a problem these days, especially when you have a trustworthy custom paper writing assistant right at your disposal. With our assistance you will be able to deal with the assignment faster, as well as allocate some time on those activities which you find enjoyable.

In case you have never ordered from us or simply want to learn more about the services we offer, do not hesitate to visit the website of our paper writing agency. What is more, feel free to contact our customer support team as well. They are available 24/7 which gives you a great opportunity to ask all your questions anytime. Simply contact them by email, phone or chat.

Working with us is beneficial for many reasons. Yet, what is probably of major importance is that we make the studying process easier. Thus, you can fully rely on us as we are ready to assist you with the accomplishment of any assignment. Even if you consider the issue to be really complex, simply address your request to us and we will do our best to help.

We will provide you with a top quality piece of writing within the specified deadline. What is more, you will not have to spend much as we offer affordable prices for our services. All you need to do is to allocate a few minutes so that to fill out the order form and to proceed with the payment. Then, we will get down to task accomplishment and will assign one of our experts to assist you. The sample will be delivered to you as soon as possible.