Global capital flows

After the globalization became a matter of fact, huge sums of money started crossing the borders. Companies around the world became open to investors who saw bright opportunities in shifting their funds abroad. Before the global financial crisis began, the income on international investment generated three times as much money as it does today. But now, a long-term direct investment is the only thing left from former extensive capital flows. Shaken by the crisis, countries push protectionist policies to keep their funds intact. Economic experts claim that the excessive capital flows ignited the financial crisis in 2008, and they continue to threaten an integrity of the recovering economies.

Economists at the IMF claim there is the 65% fall in cross-border capital flows between 2007 and 2017. Yet before the crisis, financial deregulation brought high liquidity to advanced economies. Most of the investors’ money landed in the US property sector and raised the economic bubble. Despite the overwhelming financial flow, we cannot consider the figures of 2007 as a standard of the healthy economy. As European banks stopped their cross-border financing, the flow of capital collapsed. The IMF experts believe that the return to the cross-border financial flow of the mid-2000s would benefit Western economies.

Countries that currently introduce the protectionist policies to their economy seem to have a point. When it comes to financing, we need a safer form of globalization. Foreign direct investment is the major form of shifting the capital abroad today. It is a productive long-term financial commitment between foreign companies. At the same time, economies with a large surplus go away from cross-border bank lending.

Retirement benefits

The retirement plan allows all American workers who pay Social Security taxes to receive some benefits when they retire. During their active age, workers earn credits that would later qualify them for receiving Social Security benefits. As the worker is willing to retire, the Social Security Administration will count the sum of their benefits. It directly depends on the worker’s past income. Those who retire at the lowest possible retirement age (62) may receive lower benefits than those who do not rush to retire. The full retirement age in the US is settled between 66 and 67 years and it depends on the person’s year of birth. Retiring at this age, people do not have their benefits cuts.

Some people may retire earlier than the minimum retirement age due to their health status. They shall apply for Social Security disability benefits that equal a full, unreduced retirement benefit. Often people choose to keep working after they reach the full retirement age. Delayed retirement gives extra credits to the person’s Social Security record so that the person receivers higher benefits when they retire.

Many people in the US and beyond save for retirement making investments. They make a good bonus for Social Security retirement benefits so that investors can allow themselves to retire earlier. Experienced investors may construct a total return portfolio of stock and bond index funds. They may also join a retirement income fund or buy bonds. Rental property can be a good source of income for those ready to invest in their own real estate. A reserve account can help all retirees protect the money they already have. Safe investment can bring little income; instead, people have some guaranteed income by the moment they retire.

Financial market diversity

Institutional financial market diversity implies that a range of banking institutions act on the territory of a certain country. Diversity is achieved through the different size, origin, and clients of these banks. Capital markets can also be a source of financing and contribute to the diversity. Financial market diversity provides more room for deposits, lower liquidity constraints, and stronger economic resilience in times of crisis.

The positive effect of diversified financial markets occurs due to a large number of small banks. While large banks prefer to work with secure clients, small banks lower credit constraints for small borrowers. Publicly subsidized banks are another category of institutions that boost saving among the low-income population. They also work with people who would otherwise be excluded from banking services.

A diversified financial market obviously shelters foreign banks. These are large and experienced institutions that lower liquidity constraints through competition with the domestic banks. Relying on foreign capital, they offer large loans to profitable firms and stimulate the nearby domestic banks to be more flexible. External capital also helps to cushion capital constraints during the crisis.

Nevertheless, diversified markets can experience troubles that less diverse markets do not have. If domestic banks do not keep pace with their foreign competitors, the economy may face more liquidity constraints and more boom-and-bust cycles. A huge number of small banks can cause economic volatility that is not common for a system with a few large banks. Trying to diversify their financial markets, governments may create risky projects unable to return public funding. Therefore, the success of financially diversified market lies in the initial strength of the economy.

Shadow banking

Shadow banks are financial institutions that perform core banking functions except they do not accept traditional bank deposits. They take money from the savers and lend it to the borrowers, transform short-term funds in long-term assets, and transfer credit risks. The distinct feature of the shadow banks is that they are not subject to traditional banking regulations. They act like banks but are not supervised like banks, which means they cannot borrow funds from the Federal Reserve in case of emergency. They do not have deposits covered by insurance, which makes them risky financial institutions.

For a while, investors can understand what is going on in shadow banks so that their existence does not undermine the financial system. But it is particularly difficult to estimate the financial capacity of shadow banks because they do not report to any governmental regulators. During the recent global financial crisis, shadow banks had to sell their assets to repay investors who decided to withdraw their money at once. Thus, other financial institutions also had to lower the price on their assets respectively. Many shadow banks were controlled by real commercial banks, therefore many financial institutions became impaired in crisis.

The major problem about shadow banks is the uncontrollable number of these institutions. The system is the largest in the US, though nonbank financial entities function in European countries as well. As traditional banks are often related to shadow banks, the latter can undermine the entire economies.

Organisational change and its impact on productivity in big firms

Organizational change may be unavoidable for several reasons. Small and large businesses must adapt to the changing environment to keep pace with the competition. Sometimes they merge or change their management strategies. Old practices are not always as good, and corporate change makes a lot of sense. Responding to consumer demand, adopting new technologies, and taking into account new economic conditions, businesses secure their high performance. But the change is a stressful situation and it often costs companies low productivity at the implementation stage.

Big and small organizations are susceptible to change, but the latter are more flexible transforming their business strategies and modifying the organization type. Big companies that deployed the same strategies for years are stiffer when it comes to a merge with another business or a dramatic change of management. A change can evoke mistrust and even loss of loyalty from the staff. Most often, organizational change costs the company a period of lost productivity during which the staff tries to conform with the new management or technical demands.

After the period of transmission has passed, the organization change starts bringing the first positive results at last. The new system better empowers employees, enhances the production, boosts customer service. What once looked weird, can introduce new bright opportunities to the business and benefit company’s staff more than people initially expect. All in all, the change must be fully implemented to reveal all its advantages.

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